Private 2-Days Tour in Egypt, UNISCO, world haritage site

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Giza, Giza Governorate – Egypt
  
Duration: 2 days
Maximum Number Of Travelers: 9

Built during a time when Egypt was one of the richest and most powerful civilizations in

the world, the pyramids—especially the Great Pyramids of Giza—are some of the most

magnificent man-made structures in history. Their massive scale reflects the unique role

that the pharaoh, or king, played in ancient Egyptian society. Though pyramids were

built from the beginning of the Old Kingdom to the close of the Ptolemaic period in the

fourth century A.D., the peak of pyramid building began with the late third dynasty and

continued until roughly the sixth (c. 2325 B.C.). More than 4,000 years later, the Egyptian

pyramids still retain much of their majesty, providing a glimpse into the country’s rich

and glorious past.

The Pharaoh in Egyptian Society

During the third and fourth dynasties of the Old Kingdom, Egypt enjoyed tremendous

economic prosperity and stability. Kings held a unique position in Egyptian society.

Somewhere in between human and divine, they were believed to have been chosen by

the gods to serve as mediators between them and the people on earth. Because of this, it

was in everyone’s interest to keep the king’s majesty intact even after his death, when he

was believed to become Osiris, god of the dead. The new pharaoh, in turn, became

Horus, the falcon-god who served as protector of the sun-god, Ra.

Ancient Egyptians believed that when the king died, part of his spirit (known as “ka”)

remained with his body. To properly care for his spirit, the corpse was mummified, and

everything the king would need in the afterlife was buried with him, including gold

vessels, food, furniture and other offerings. The pyramids became the focus of a cult of

the dead king that was supposed to continue well after his death. Their riches would

provide not only for him, but also for the relatives, officials and priests who were buried

near him.

From the beginning of the Dynastic Era (2950 B.C.), royal tombs were carved into rock

and covered with flat-roofed rectangular structures known as “mastabas,” which were

precursors to the pyramids. The oldest known pyramid in Egypt was built around 2630

B.C. at Saqqara, for the third dynasty’s King Djoser. Known as the Step Pyramid, it began

as a traditional mastaba but grew into something much more ambitious. As the story

goes, the pyramid’s architect was Imhotep, a priest and healer who some 1,400 years

later would be deified as the patron saint of scribes and physicians. Over the course of

Djoser’s nearly 20-year reign, pyramid builders assembled six stepped layers of stone (as

opposed to mud-brick, like most earlier tombs) that eventually reached a height of 204

feet (62 meters); it was the tallest building of its time. The Step Pyramid was surrounded

by a complex of courtyards, temples and shrines, where Djoser would enjoy his afterlife.

After Djoser, the stepped pyramid became the norm for royal burials, although none of

those planned by his dynastic successors were completed (probably due to their

relatively short reigns). The earliest tomb constructed as a “true” (smooth-sided, not

stepped) pyramid was the Red Pyramid at Dahshur, one of three burial structures built

for the first king of the fourth dynasty, Sneferu (2613-2589 B.C.) It was named for the

color of the limestone blocks used to construct the pyramid’s core.

The Great Pyramids of Giza

No pyramids are more celebrated than the Great Pyramids of Giza, located on a plateau

on the west bank of the Nile River, on the outskirts of modern-day Cairo. The oldest and

largest of the three pyramids at Giza, known as the Great Pyramid, is the only surviving

structure out of the famed seven wonders of the ancient world. It was built for Khufu

(Cheops, in Greek), Sneferu’s successor and the second of the eight kings of the fourth

dynasty. Though Khufu reigned for 23 years (2589-2566 B.C.), relatively little is known of

his reign beyond the grandeur of his pyramid. The sides of the pyramid’s base average

755.75 feet (230 meters), and its original height was 481.4 feet (147 meters), making it the

largest pyramid in the world. Three small pyramids built for Khufu’s queens are lined up

next to the Great Pyramid, and a tomb was found nearby containing the empty

sarcophagus of his mother, Queen Hetepheres. Like other pyramids, Khufu’s is

surrounded by rows of mastabas, where relatives or officials of the king were buried to

accompany and support him in the afterlife.

The middle pyramid at Giza was built for Khufu’s son Khafre (2558-2532 B.C). A unique

feature built inside Khafre’s pyramid complex was the Great Sphinx, a guardian statue

carved in limestone with the head of a man and the body of a lion. It was the largest

statue in the ancient world, measuring 240 feet long and 66 feet high. In the 18th dynasty

(c. 1500 B.C.) the Great Sphinx would come to be worshiped itself, as the image of a local

form of the god Horus. The southernmost pyramid at Giza was built for Khafre’s son

Menkaure (2532-2503 B.C.). It is the shortest of the three pyramids (218 feet) and is a

precursor of the smaller pyramids that would be constructed during the fifth and sixth

dynasties.

Approximately 2.3 million blocks of stone (averaging about 2.5 tons each) had to be cut,

transported and assembled to build Khufu’s Great Pyramid. The ancient Greek

historian Herodotus wrote that it took 20 years to build and required the labor of 100,000

men, but later archaeological evidence suggests that the workforce might actually have

been around 20,000. Though some popular versions of history held that the pyramids

were built by slaves or foreigners forced into labor, skeletons excavated from the area

show that the workers were probably native Egyptian agricultural laborers who worked

on the pyramids during the time of year when the Nile River flooded much of the land

nearby.

The End of the Pyramid Era

Pyramids continued to be built throughout the fifth and sixth dynasties, but the general

quality and scale of their construction declined over this period, along with the power

and wealth of the kings themselves. In the later Old Kingdom pyramids, beginning with

that of King Unas (2375-2345 B.C), pyramid builders began to inscribe written accounts of

events in the king’s reign on the walls of the burial chamber and the rest of the pyramid’s

interior. Known as pyramid texts, these are the earliest significant religious compositions

known from ancient Egypt.

The last of the great pyramid builders was Pepy II (2278-2184 B.C.), the second king of the

sixth dynasty, who came to power as a young boy and ruled for 94 years. By the time of

his rule, Old Kingdom prosperity was dwindling, and the pharaoh had lost some of his

quasi-divine status as the power of non-royal administrative officials grew. Pepy II’s

pyramid, built at Saqqara and completed some 30 years into his reign, was much shorter

(172 feet) than others of the Old Kingdom. With Pepy’s death, the kingdom and strong

central government virtually collapsed, and Egypt entered a turbulent phase known as

the First Intermediate Period. Later kings, of the 12th dynasty, would return to pyramid

building during the so-called Middle Kingdom phase, but it was never on the same scale

as the Great Pyramids.

The Pyramids Today

Tomb robbers and other vandals in both ancient and modern times removed most of the

bodies and funeral goods from Egypt’s pyramids and plundered their exteriors as well.

Stripped of most of their smooth white limestone coverings, the Great Pyramids no

longer reach their original heights; Khufu’s, for example, measures only 451 feet high.

Nonetheless, millions of people continue to visit the pyramids each year, drawn by their

towering grandeur and the enduring allure of Egypt’s rich and glorious past.

The Great Pyramid of Giza is a defining symbol of Egypt and the last of the ancient Seven

Wonders of the World. It is located on the Giza plateau near the modern city of Cairo and

was built over a twenty-year period during the reign of the king Khufu (2589-2566 BCE,

also known as Cheops) of the 4th Dynasty. Until the Eiffel Tower was completed in Paris,

France in 1889 CE, the Great Pyramid was the tallest structure made by human hands in

the world; a record it held for over 3,000 years and one unlikely to be broken. Other

scholars have pointed to the Lincoln Cathedral spire in England, built in 1300 CE, as the

structure which finally surpassed the Great Pyramid in height but, still,

the Egyptian monument held the title for an impressive span of time. The pyramid rises

to a height of 479 feet (146 metres) with a base of 754 feet (230 metres) and is comprised

of over two million blocks of stone. Some of these stones are of such immense size and

weight (such as the granite slabs in the King’s Chamber) that the logistics of raising and

positioning them so precisely seems an impossibility by modern standards.

The pyramid was first excavated using modern techniques and scientific analysis in 1880

CE by Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie (1853-1942 CE), the British archaeologist who

set the standard for archaeological operations in Egypt generally and at Giza specifically.

The Great Pyramid has lent its name as a sort of by-word for paradoxes; and, as moths to a candle, so are theorisers attracted to it (1).

Although many theories persist as to the purpose of the pyramid, the most widely

accepted understanding is that it was constructed as a tomb for the king. Exactly how it

was built, however, still puzzles people in the modern day. The theory of ramps running

around the outside of the structure to move the blocks into place has been largely

discredited. So-called “fringe” or “New Age” theories abound, in an effort to explain the

advanced technology required for the structure, citing extra-terrestrials and their

imagined frequent visits to Egypt in antiquity. These theories continue to be advanced in

spite of the increasing body of evidence substantiating that the pyramid was built by the

ancient Egyptians using technological means which, most likely, were so common to

them that they felt no need to record them. Still, the intricacy of the interior passages,

shafts, and chambers (The King’s Chamber, Queen’s Chamber, and Grand Gallery) as well

as the nearby Osiris Shaft, coupled with the mystery of how the pyramid was built at all

and its orientation to cardinal points, encourages the persistence of these fringe theories.

Another enduring theory regarding the monument’s construction is that it was built on

the backs of slaves. Contrary to the popular opinion that Egyptian monuments in

general, and the Great Pyramid in particular, were built using Hebrew slave labor,

the pyramids of Giza and all other temples and monuments in the country were

constructed by Egyptians who were hired for their skills and compensated for their

efforts. No evidence of any kind whatsoever – from any era of Egypt’s history – supports

the narrative events described in the biblical Book of Exodus. Worker’s housing at Giza

was discovered and fully documented in 1979 CE by Egyptologists Lehner and Hawass

but, even before this evidence came to light, ancient Egyptian documentation

substantiated payment to Egyptian workers for state-sponsored monuments while

offering no evidence of forced labor by a slave population of any particular ethnic group.

Egyptians from all over the country worked on the monument, for a variety of reasons,

to build an eternal home for their king which would last through et

Pyramids & the Giza Plateau

Toward the end of the Early Dynastic Period (c. 3150-c.2613 BCE) the vizier Imhotep ((c.

2667-2600 BCE) devised a means of creating an elaborate tomb, unlike any other, for his

king Djoser. Prior to Djoser’s reign (c. 2670 BCE) tombs were constructed of mud

fashioned into modest mounds known as mastabas. Imhotep conceived of a then-radical

plan of not only building a mastaba out of stone but of stacking these structures on top of

one another in steps to create an enormous, lasting, monument. His vision led to the

creation of  Djoser’s Step Pyramid at Saqqara, still standing in the present day, the oldest

pyramid in the world.

Still, the Step Pyramid was not a “true pyramid” and, in the period of the Old Kingdom (c.

2613-2181 BCE) the king Sneferu (c. 2613-2589 BCE) sought to improve on Imhotep’s

plans and create an even more impressive monument. His first attempt, the Collapsed

Pyramid at Meidum, failed because he departed too widely from Imhotep’s design.

Sneferu learned from his mistake, however, and went to work on another – the Bent

Pyramid – which also failed because of miscalculations in the angle from base to summit.

Undeterred, Sneferu took what he learned from that experience and built the Red

Pyramid, the first true pyramid constructed in Egypt.

Building a pyramid required enormous resources and the maintenance of a wide array

of all kinds of skilled and unskilled workers. The kings of the 4th Dynasty – often referred

to as “the pyramid builders” – were able to command these resources because of the

stability of the government and the wealth they were able to acquire through trade. A

strong central government, and a surplus of wealth, were both vital to any efforts at

pyramid building and these resources were passed from Sneferu, upon his death, to his s.

Khufu seems to have set to work on building his grand tomb shortly after coming to

power. The rulers of the Old Kingdom governed from the city of Memphis and the

nearby necropolis of Saqqara was already dominated by Djoser’s pyramid complex while

other sites such as Dashur had been used by Sneferu. An older necropolis, however, was

also close by and this was Giza. Khufu’s mother, Hetepheres I (c. 2566 BCE), was buried

there and there were no other great monuments to compete for attention close by; so

Khufu chose Giza as the site for his pyramid.

Construction of the Pyramid

The first step in constructing a pyramid, after deciding upon the best location, was

organizing the crews and allocating resources and this was the job of the second-most

powerful man in Egypt, the vizier. Khufu’s vizier was Hemiunu, his nephew, credited

with the design and building of the Great Pyramid. Hemiunu’s father, Nefermaat

(Khufu’s brother) had been Sneferu’s vizier in his pyramid-building projects and it is

probable he learned a great deal about construction from these experiences.

The vizier was the final architect of any building project and had to delegate

responsibility for materials, transport, labor, payments and any other aspect of the work.

Written receipts, letters, diary entries, official reports to and from the palace all make

clear that a great building project was accomplished at Giza under Khufu’s reign but not

one of these pieces of evidence suggest exactly how the pyramid was created.  The

technological skill evident in the creation of the Great Pyramid still mystifies scholars,

and others,  in the present day. Egyptologists Bob Brier and Hoyt Hobbs comment on this:

Because of their immense size, building pyramids posed special problems of both organization and engineering. Constructing the Great Pyramid of the pharaoh Khufu, for example, required that more than two million blocks weighing from two to more than sixty tons be formed into a structure covering two football fields and rising in a perfect pyramidal shape 480 feet into the sky. Its construction involved vast numbers of workers which, in turn, presented complex logistical problems concerning food, shelter, and organization. Millions of heavy stone blocks needed not only to be quarried and raised to great heights but also set together with precision in order to create the desired shape. (217)

It is precisely the skill and technology required to “create the desired shape” which

presents the problem to anyone trying to understand how the Great Pyramid was built.

Modern-day theories continue to fall back on the concept of ramps which were raised

around the foundation of the pyramid and grew higher as the structure grew taller. The

ramp theory, largely discredited but still repeated in one form or another, maintains

that, once the foundation was firm these ramps could have easily been raised around the

structure as it was built and provided the means for hauling and positioning tons of

stones in precise order. Aside from the problems of a lack of wood in Egypt to make an

abundance of such ramps, the angles workers would have had to move the stones up,

and the impossibility of moving heavy stone bricks and granite slabs into position

without a crane (which the Egyptians did not have), the most serious problem comes

down to the total impracticability of the ramp theory. Brier and Hobbs explain:

The problem is one of physics. The steeper the angle of an incline, the more effort necessary to move an object up that incline. So, in order for a relatively small number of men, say ten or so, to drag a two-ton load up a ramp, its angle could not be more than about eight percent. Geometry tells us that to reach a height of 480 feet, an inclined plane rising at eight percent would have to start almost one mile from its finish. It has been calculated that building a mile-long ramp that rose as high as the Great Pyramid would require as much material as that needed for the pyramid itself – workers would have had to build the equivilent of two pyramids in the twenty-year time frame. (221)

A variation on the ramp theory was proposed by the French architect Jean-Pierre Houdin

who claims ramps were used inside of the pyramid. Houdin believes that ramps may

have been used externally in the initial stages of construction but, as the pyramid grew

taller, work was done internally. The quarried stones were brought in through the

entrance and moved up the ramps to their position. This, Houdin claims, would account

for the shafts one finds inside the pyramid. This theory, however, does not account for

the weight of the stones or the number of workers on the ramp required to move them

up an angle inside the pyramid and into position.

The ramp theory in either of these forms fails to explain how the pyramid was built

while a much more satisfactory possibility rests right below the monument: the high

water table of the Giza plateau. Engineer Robert Carson, in his work The Great Pyramid:

The Inside Story, suggests that the pyramid was built using water power. Carson also

suggests the use of ramps but in a much more cogent fashion: the interior ramps were

supplemented by hydraulic power from below and hoists from above. Although the

Egyptians had no knowledge of a crane as one would understand that mechanism the

present day, they did have the shaduf, a long pole with a bucket and rope at one end and

counter-weight at the other, typically used for drawing water from a well. Hydraulic

power from below, coupled with hoists from above could have moved the stones

throughout the interior of the pyramid and this would also account for the shafts and

spaces one finds in the monument which other theories have failed to fully account for.

It is abundantly clear that the water table at Giza is still quite high in the present day and

was higher in the past. Egyptologist Zahi Hawass, writing on his excavation of the Osiris

Shaft near the Great Pyramid in 1999 CE, notes how “the excavation proved to be very

challenging mainly due to the dangerous nature of the work caused by the high water

table” (381). In the same article, Hawass notes how, in 1945 CE, guides at Giza were

regularly swimming in the waters of this underground shaft and that “the rising water

table in the shaft prevented scholars from studying it further” (379). Further, earlier

attempts to excavate the Osiris Shaft – by Selim Hassan in the 1930’s CE – and

observations (though no excavation) of the shaft by Abdel Moneim Abu Bakr in the

1940’s CE – also make note of this same high water table. Geological surveys have

determined that the Giza plateau and surrounding region was much more fertile in the

time of the Old Kingdom than it is today and that the water table would have been

higher.

Considering this, Carson’s theory of water power used in building the pyramid makes the

most sense. Carson claims the monument “could only be constructed by means of

hydraulic power; that a hydraulic transportation system was set up inside the Great

Pyramid” (5). Harnessing the power of the high water table, the ancient builders could

have constructed the pyramid much more reasonably than by some form of exterior

ramping system.

Once the interior was completed, the whole of the pyramid was covered in white

limestone which would have shone brilliantly and been visible from every direction for

miles around the site. As impressive as the Great Pyramid is today, one must recognize

that it is a monument in ruin as the limestone long ago fell away and was utilized as

building material for the city of Cairo (just as the nearby city of ancient Memphis was).

When it was completed, the Great Pyramid must have appeared as the most striking

creation the Egyptians had ever seen. Even today, in its greatly weathered state, the

Great Pyramid inspires awe. The sheer size and scope of the project is literally amazing.

Historian Marc van de Mieroop writes:

The size boggles the mind: it was 146 meters high (479 feet) by 230 meters at the base (754 feet). We estimate that it contained 2,300,000 blocks of stone with an average weight of 2 and 3/4 tons some weighing up to 16 tons. Khufu ruled 23 years according to the Turin Royal Canon, which would mean that throughout his reign annually 100,000 blocks – daily about 285 blocks or one every two minutes of daylight – had to be quarried, transported, dressed, and put in place…The construction was almost faultless in design. The sides were oriented exactly toward the cardinal points and were at precise 90-degree angles. (58)

The workers who accomplished this were skilled and unskilled laborers hired by the

state for the project. These workers either volunteered their efforts to pay off a debt, for

community service, or were compensated for their time. Although slavery was an

institution practiced in ancient Egypt, no slaves, Hebrew or otherwise, were used in

creating the monument. Brier and Hobbs explain the logistics of the operation:

Were it not for the two months every year when the Nile‘s water covered Egypt’s farmland, idling virtually the entire workforce, none of this construction would have been possible. During such times, a pharaoh offered food for work and the promise of a favored treatment in the afterworld where he would rule just as he did in this world. For two months annually, workmen gathered by the tens of thousands from all over the country to transport the blocks a permanent crew had quarried during the rest of the year. Overseers organized the men into teams to transport the stones on sleds, devices better suited than wheeled vehicles to moving weighty objects over shifting sand. A causeway, lubricated by water, smoothed the uphill pull. No mortar was used to hold the blocks in place, only a fit so exact that these towering structures have survived for 4,000 years (17-18

The yearly inundation of the Nile River was essential for the livelihood of the Egyptians

in that it deposited rich soil from the riverbed all across the farmlands of the shore; it

also, however, made farming those lands an impossibility during the time of the flood

. During these periods, the government provided work for the farmers through labor on

their great monuments. These were the people who did the actual, physical, work in

moving the stones, raising the obelisks, building the temples, creating the pyramids

which continue to fascinate and inspire people in the present day. It is a disservice to

their efforts and their memory, not to mention the grand culture of the Egyptians, to

continue to insist that these structures were created by poorly treated slaves who were

forced into their condition because of ethnicity. The biblical Book of Exodus is a cultural

myth purposefully created to distinguish one group of people living in the land

of Canaan from others and should not be regarded as history.

The Great Pyramid as Tomb

All of this effort went to creating a grand tomb for the king who, as mediator between

the gods and the people, was thought to be deserving of the finest of tombs. Theories

regarding the original purpose of the Great Pyramid range from the fanciful to the

absurd and may be investigated elsewhere but the culture which produced the

monument would have regarded it as a tomb, an eternal home for the king. Tombs

which have been excavated throughout Egypt, from the most modest to the rich example

of Tutankhamun‘s – along with other physical evidence –  make clear the ancient

Egyptian belief in a life after death and the concern for the soul’s welfare in this new

world. Grave goods were always placed in the tomb of the deceased as well as, in

wealthier tombs, inscriptions and paintings on the walls (known as the Pyramid Texts, in

some cases). The Great Pyramid is simply the grandest form of one of these tombs.

Arguments against the Great Pyramid as a tomb cite the fact that no mummies or grave

goods have ever been found inside. This argument willfully ignores the plentiful

evidence of grave robbing from ancient times to the present. Egyptologists from the 19th

century CE onwards have recognized that the Great Pyramid was looted in antiquity and,

most likely, during the time of the New Kingdom (c. 1570-1069 BCE) when the Giza

necropolis was replaced by the area now known as The Valley of the Kings near Thebes.

This is not to suggest that Giza was forgotten, there is ample evidence of New Kingdom

pharaohs such as Ramesses the Great (1279-1213 BCE) taking great interest in the site.

Rameses II had a small temple built at Giza in front of the Sphinx as a token of honor and

it was Rameses II’s fourth son, Khaemweset, who devoted himself to preserving the site.

Khaemweset never ruled Egypt but was a crown prince whose efforts to restore the

monuments of the past are well documented. He is, in fact, considered the world’s “first

Egyptologist” for his work in restoration, preservation, and recording of ancient

monuments and especially for his work at Giza.

Further, work conducted on the Osiris Shaft – and other areas around the site – have

shown activity during the 26th Dynasty of the Third Intermediate Period (c. 1069-525

BCE) and into the Late Period (c. 525-332 BCE). Giza was, therefore, an active site

throughout Egypt’s history but was not always given the kind of attention it received

during the Old Kingdom. Herodotus, writing in the 5th century BCE, reported that the

Great Pyramid had been looted and visitor’s to the site in the modern day enter through

the so-called Robbers Tunnel created c. 820 CE by Caliph al-Ma’mun seeking to recover

whatever treasures the pyramid held inside. Tomb robbers before and after the caliph

had also visited the pyramid prior to the excavations of the 19th century CE. Whatever

treasures the pyramid may have held in the time of Khufu could have been removed at

any time from the Old Kingdom onward.

The Giza Plateau

Following Khufu’s death, his son Khafre (2558-2532 BCE) took the throne and began

building his own pyramid next to his father’s. The king Menkaure (2532-2503 BCE) came

after Khafre and followed the same paradigm of building his eternal home at Giza.

Khafre and Menkaure added their own temple complexes and monuments, such as the

Great Sphinx of Giza under Khafre’s reign, but these were on a smaller scale than that of

Khufu’s work. It is no accident or mystery as to why the Great Pyramid is the largest and

the other two are progressively smaller: as the period of the Old Kingdom continued,

with the government’s emphasis on grand building projects, resources became more and

more scarce. Menkaure’s successor, Shepseskaf (2503-2498 BCE) had the resources to

complete Menkaure’s pyramid complex but could afford no such luxury for himself; he

was buried in a modest mastaba tomb at Saqqara.

Still, Giza continued be regarded as an important site and funds were allocated as long as

they were available for its upkeep. Giza was a thriving community for centuries with

temples, shops, a market place, housing, and a sturdy economy. Individuals in the

present day speculating on the lonely, deserted, mystical outpost of Giza ignore the

evidence of what the complex would have been like for most of Egypt’s long history. The

present day understanding of the plateau as some isolated outpost of monuments

encourages theories which do not align with how Giza actually was when those

monuments were constructed. Theories suggesting mysterious tunnels beneath the

plateau have been debunked – yet still persist – including speculations concerning the

Osiris Shaft.

This complex of underground chambers was most likely dug, as Hawass contends, in

honor of the god Osiris and may or may not have been where the king Khufu was

originally laid to rest. Herodotus mentions the Osiris Shaft (though not by that name,

which was only given to it recently by Hawass) in writing of Khufu’s burial chamber

which was said to be surrounded by water. Excavations of the shaft and the chambers

have recovered artifacts dating from the Old Kingdom through the Third Intermediate

Period but no tunnels branching out beneath the plateau. Osiris, as lord of the dead,

would certainly have been honored at Giza and underground chambers recognizing him

as ruler in the afterlife were not uncommon throughout Egypt’s history.

Although the Great Pyramid of Giza, and the other smaller pyramids, temples,

monuments, and tombs there, continued to be respected throughout Egypt’s history, the

site fell into decline after the Roman occupation and then annexation of the country in

30 BCE. The Romans concentrated their energies on the city of Alexandria and the

abundant crops the country offered, making Egypt into Rome‘s “bread basket”, as the

 

phrase goes. The site was more or less neglected until Napoleon’s Egyptian Campaign of

1798-1801 CE during which he brought along his team of scholars and scientists to

document ancient Egyptian cultureand monuments. Napoleon’s work in Egypt attracted

others to the country who then inspired still others to visit, make their own observations,

and conduct their own excavations.

Throughout the 19th century CE, ancient Egypt became increasingly the object of interest

for people around the world. Professional and amateur archaeologists descended upon

the country seeking to exploit or explore the ancient culture for their own ends or in the

interests of science and knowledge. The Great Pyramid was first fully excavated

professionally by the British archaeologist Sir William Matthew Flinders Petrie whose

work on the monument lay the foundation for any others who followed up to the present

day.

Flinders Petrie was obviously interested in exploring every nuance of the Great Pyramid

but not at the expense of the monument itself. His excavations were performed with

great care in an effort to preserve the historical authenticity of the work he was

examining. Although this may seem a common sense approach in the modern day, many

European explorers before Flinders Petrie, archaeologists professional and amateur,

brushed aside any concerns of preservation in pursuing their goal of unearthing ancient

treasure troves and bringing antiquities back to their patrons. Flinders Petrie established

 

 

Ticket for 2 Traveler(s).  2 X Adult (Age 12 to 99)    $90 USD / traveler
Description
Itinerary
This is a typical itinerary for this product

Stop At: Pyramids of Giza, Al Haram Str., Giza 12611 Egypt

Around Cairo Your Egyptologist guide will meet you at your Cairo or Giza hotel at 8am in

an air-conditioned vehicle Giza Pyramids. Admire the three vast pyramids of the kings
and the several smaller pyramids that were tombs of the queens: if you’d like to climb
inside the Great Pyramid or see King Khufu’s solar boat, your guide can arrange this for
an additional charge. Stroll out into the sands and scramble aboard a camel for a 30-
minute ride on the famous ‘ship of the desert’, before discovering the Valley Temple and
the iconic Sphinx. You’ll enjoy lunch at a local restaurant with a view of the pyramids.
Next, you’ll drive to Saqqara, to see the Pyramid of Djoser, probably Egypt’s oldest
pyramid, enter the pyramid of Teti to see the pyramid texts, and admire the stunning
reliefs in the tombs of the nobles. You’ll finish the day with a look at the remains of
Egypt’s ancient capital Memphis, returning to your hotel around 4 pm.

Duration: 6 hours

Stop At: Egyptian Antiquities Museum, Midan El Tahrir Geographical Society Building,

Cairo 11511 Egypt

Our Specialist tour guide will pick You up from your Hotel by a Private A/C Van, than will

take you to the Egyptian Museum which is Located in Tahrer Square. Inside the garden
of the museum, the guide will give you a Brief about the ancient Egyptian history, how it
started, where was the first Capital, who is the king who could to make the united
between upper and lower Egypt, The first Floor: Your Egyptologist tour guide will explain
to you in detail all information about old kingdom, who is the builder of it, when that
kingdom started and how was its end . You will meet some of the old kingdom kings and
queens, also you will know, how became the scribe very important , Why did the dwarfs
become famous in our history. The second Floor: There you will spend longer time
enjoying listening to the explanation of your tour guide about the Golden Pharaoh
Tutankhamen, also you will know more about the secret of Mummification. also will be
interesting to know that, the first paper in the world made in Egypt, than you will have
free time to go around and than you will be taking

Duration: 2 hours

Stop At: Islamic Cairo, Midan Silah ad-Din, Cairo 11511 Egypt

After lunch in a local restaurant, Old Cairo. You’ll visit the Citadel of Saladin, the

Alabaster Mosque

Duration: 2 hours

Stop At:Coptic Cairo, Cairo Egypt

Coptic Christian Hanging Church, and the Ben Ezra Synagogue

Duration: 2 hours

Stop At:Khan Al-Khalili, Al-Azhar Street, Cairo 11511 Egypt

Khan al-Khalili bazaar

Duration: 1 hour


Important Information:
Details
  • Departure: Traveler pickup is offered
    Cairo hotels or Giza Hotels or customer location
Additional Information
  • Confirmation will be received at time of booking

 

  • Wheelchair accessible

 

  • Near public transportation

 

  • Infant seats available

 

  • Transportation is wheelchair accessible

 

  • Surfaces are wheelchair accessible

 

  • Most travelers can participate

 

  • This is a private tour/activity. Only your group will participate

 

Inclusions
  • Hotel pickup and drop-off

 

  • Private tour

 

  • Qualified Egyptologist guide

 

  • Professional Driver

 

  • Private Car

 

  • Snacks

 

Exclusions
  • Entrance fees

 

  • Entry/Admission – Pyramids of Giza

 

  • Entry/Admission – Egyptian Antiquities Museum

 

  • Entry/Admission – Islamic Cairo

 

  • Entry/Admission – Coptic Cairo

 

  • Entry/Admission – Khan Al-Khalili

 

Terms of Use
Once you have booked and received your travel voucher, the contact details for the
travel service operator will be on this voucher under the heading “Important
Information”. Where applicable, you are required to call the travel service operator
directly to advise of additional information such as:
  • Hotel for pick up

 

  • Weights for helicopter tours

 

  • Choice of times for tours

 

  • Special dietary requirements, meal choices etc.

 

 

Event Tickets

Private 2-Days Tour in Egypt

$90.00

30.044419631.2357116
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